J Genomics 2014; 2:31-44. doi:10.7150/jgen.5260 This volume
1. Research Unit Muscle Biology and Growth, Leibniz-Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), W.-Stahl-Allee 2, D-18196 Dummerstorf, Germany;
2. Research Unit Molecular Biology, Leibniz-Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), W.-Stahl-Allee 2, D-18196 Dummerstorf, Germany;
3. Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
Adipose tissue is considered as a major endocrine organ that secretes numerous proteins called adipokines. The heterogeneous nature of adipose tissue in different parts of the body suggests respective heterogeneity of proteomes and secretomes. This review consolidates knowledge from recent studies targeting the diversity of different adipose depots affecting the pattern of secreted adipokines and discusses potential consequences for the cross-talk between adipose and skeletal muscle in humans, rodent models and farm animals. Special attention is paid to muscle-associated fat depots like inter- and intramuscular fat that become focus of attention in the context of the rather new notion of skeletal muscle as a major endocrine organ. Understanding the complexity of communication between adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells will allow developing strategies for improvement of human health and for sustainable production of high quality meat.
Keywords: adipose depots, intramuscular fat, adipokines, myokines, review.